Thursday, June 12, 2008

Dieng Temple

The oldest known temples that have been preserved are those of the Dieng plateau near Wonosobo on Central Java. Dieng was not a capital or a major settlement. Its location, at a high altitude in a poorly accessible, damp and wet mountain vale, is ill suited for human habitation. In Indian tradition, the Gods live on the mountains, so that the location might be explained from this perspective. Even today, the place at a high altitude feels mystical, enshrouded in clouds and surrounded by coloured lakes.

The Dieng complex is dedicated to Çiva. A statue of Çiva from the Dieng plateau can be seen in the National Museum in Jakarta.

Chinese sources quoted by Krom (1923) report annual visits to Dieng by the King of Java. The Candi at Dieng were built in two stages in the 8th and the 9thC. Of the structures at Dieng, seven survive in relatively complete state. Remaining foundations show that there used to be more temples. The temples are known by the names of key characters from the Javanese shadow play, such as Semar and Arjuna. Not all the buildings were used for religious purposes. Candi Semar is widely believed to be a storage place for artefacts. Dieng was a religious settlement in nature. With the main town likely far removed from the mountaintop, a store for key implements seems a necessity. It is interesting, though, that this store would be made from stone rather than wood that was used for the priests' dwellings.

An inscription dated 808 dated found at Dieng is the oldest old Javanese inscription handed down to present times. A carved inscription found at Dieng and dating from 1210 suggests that the complex had been in use continuously. Dumarcay draws the conclusion from this that the temples were changed over the centuries as demanded by ritual. As an example he quotes Candi Gatotkaca where in the mid 9thC the base was enlarged to accommodate a second shrine to the south of the original building. This new building is now in ruins because it did not have a strong foundation.

Tuesday, May 27, 2008

Prambanan Temple, Hindhu Temple In The World

Prambanan temple is extraordinarily beautiful building constructed in the tenth century during the reigns of two kings namely Rakai Pikatan and Rakai Balitung. Soaring up to 47 meters (5 meters higher than Borobudur temple), the foundation of this temple has fulfilled the desire of the founder to show Hindu triumph in Java Island. This temple is located 17 kilometers from the city center, among an area that now functions as beautiful park.

There is a legend that Javanese people always tell about this temple. As the story tells, there was a man named Bandung Bondowoso who loved Roro Jonggrang. To refuse his love, Jonggrang asked Bondowoso to make her a temple with 1,000 statues only in one-night time. The request was nearly fulfilled when Jonggrang asked the villagers to pound rice and to set a fire in order to look like morning had broken. Feeling to be cheated, Bondowoso who only completed 999 statues cursed Jonggrang to be the thousandth statue.

Prambanan temple has three main temples in the primary yard, namely Vishnu, Brahma, and Shiva temples. Those three temples are symbols of Trimurti in Hindu belief. All of them face to the east. Each main temple has accompanying temple facing to the west, namely Nandini for Shiva, Angsa for Brahma, and Garuda for Vishnu. Besides, there are 2 flank temples, 4 kelir temples and 4 corner temples. In the second area, there are 224 temples.

Entering Shiva temple, the highest temple and is located in the middle, you will find four rooms. One main room contains Shiva statue, while the other three rooms contain the statues of Durga (Shiva's wife), Agastya (Shiva's teacher), and Ganesha (Shiva's son). Durga statue is said to be the statue of Roro Jonggrang in the above legend.

In Vishnu temple, to the north of Shiva temple, you will find only one room with Vishnu statue in it. In Brahma temple, to the south of Shiva temple, you find only room as well with Brahma statue in it.

Quite attractive accompanying temple is Garuda temple that is located close to Vishnu temple. This temple keeps a story of half-bird human being named Garuda. Garuda is a mystical bird in Hindu mythology. The figure is of golden body, white face, red wings, with the beak and wings similar to eagle's. It is assumed that the figure is Hindu adaptation of Bennu (means 'rises' or 'shines') that is associated with the god of the Sun or Re in Old Egypt mythology or Phoenix in Old Greek mythology. Garuda succeeded in saving his mother from the curse of Aruna (Garuda's handicapped brother) by stealing Tirta Amerta (the sacred water of the gods).

Its ability to save her mother made many people admire it to the present time and it is used for various purposes. Indonesia uses the bird as the symbol of the country. Other country using the same symbol is Thailand, with the same reason but different form adaptation and appearance. In Thailand, Garuda is known as Krut or Pha Krut.

Prambanan also has panels of relief describing the story of Ramayana. Experts say that the relief is similar to the story of Ramayana that is told orally from generation to generation. Another interesting relief is Kalpataru tree that - in Hindu - the tree is considered tree of life, eternity and environment harmony. In Prambanan, relief of Kalpataru tree is described as flanking a lion. The presence of this tree makes experts consider that Javanese society in the ninth century had wisdom to manage its environment.

Just like Garuda, Kalpataru tree is also used for various purposes. In Indonesia, Kalpataru is used as the logo of Indonesian Environment Institution. Some intellectuals in Bali even develop "Tri Hita Karana" concept for environment conservation by seeing Kalpataru relief in this temple. This tree of life is also seen in the gunungan (the puppet used as an opening of traditional puppet show or wayang kulit). This proves that relief panels in Prambanan have been widely known throughout the world.

If you see the relief in detail, you will see many birds on them; they are real birds as we can see on the earth right now. Relief panels of such birds are so natural that biologists can identify their genus. One of them is the relief of the Yellow-Crest Parrot (Cacatua sulphurea) that cites unanswered question. The reason is that the bird only exists in Masakambing Island, an island in the middle of Java Sea. Then, did the bird exist in Yogyakarta? No body has succeeded in revealing the mystery.

You can discover many more things in Prambanan. You can see relief of Wiracarita Ramayana based on oral tradition. If you feel tired of enjoying the relief, you can take a rest in the beautiful garden in the complex. Since 18 September 2006, you can enter zone 1 area of Prambanan temple. The damage caused by the earthquake on 27 May 2006 is being reconstructed. Please come and enjoy Prambanan temple.

Cetho Temple

Built in the 15th century, the Cetho Temple is also located high on the western slope of Mount Lawu, above the Sukuh Temple. The journey to Cetho is a trip for the real adventurer, along a winding road trough tea gardens and forest, up the Temple’s fourteen terraces in to the clouds. The Temple’s allure lies in its aura of mystery. Architecturally reminiscent of the ancient Aztec and Mayan cultures of Central America, the Cetho Temple is similar to the Sukuh Temple and is unlike other temples in Central Java. It provides an unforgettable experience for the more during traveller.

Sunday, May 11, 2008

Ratu Boko Temple

High on a mountain side about three kilometers to the South of Prambanan temple, Ratu Boko Temple, provides spectacular vistas of the Prambanan plain. To this day it is still unknown who discovered Ratu Boko or who named it. Inscriptions dating from the mid 700's say that it was a dormitory for monks. There are several ruins, including a well preserved arena which was used as a hall for royal audiences. Some legends say that it was also used as a venue for tests of mortal combat. A series of circular plunge pools carved into the limestone were used as royal baths. But most spectacular of all, is the entrance gate. With two separate gateways set on different levels, it contains very elaborate stone facings.

Friday, May 9, 2008

The Ministry of Education and Research In Brief

covers two policy areas: education policy and research policy. The Minister for Education, and the head of the Ministry is Jan Björklund. The Minister for Higher Education and Research, Lars Leijonborg, is responsible for research.

The Ministry of Education and Research is responsible for issues concerning child care, preschool classes, compulsory and equivalent types of school, independent schools, school-age child care, upper secondary school, local authority adult education, advanced vocational education, supplementary educational programmes, popular adult education, the university and higher education system, research, financial support to students and student welfare issues.

Thursday, May 8, 2008

Surakarta, The Cradle oF Javanese Culture

The birth place of the Central Javanese Kingdom. Kasunanan and Mangkunegaran Surakarta has long been famous as a cultural centre in Central Java. Many fine traditional arts such as traditional dances and music as well as the literature in the finest style of Javanese language are very attractive once you have seen it you will fall in love and could never forget.

Mangkunegaran Palace
Another supers repository of Javanese art and culture in Surakarta. The palace has a large veranda and a big room lighted in blue which is called Kerobongan. Usually used for state official ceremonies. The ceiling of the veranda, decorated in an old Batik style. Modang and zodiac symbols in Javanese version.

Kraton Kasunanan
A masterpiece savekeeping of Javanese art and culture. The palace was built in the middkle of 18th century, decorated among other things with gilded Columns and marble statues.
Next to the places is a royal meseum. Where you can see the exhibition of the Surakarta’s cultural history. At the art gallery of the palace there are antiques such as the royal cart, palace’s amulets and ornaments very old and yet very attractive.

Wednesday, May 7, 2008

Culture Education For Everyone In Indonesia

The culture education about education expecially the culture in indonesia.Many early childhood educators and researchers throughout the world are focusing attention on the ecology of childhood. Gura (1994) says that " . . . what childhood signifies at any time in history or in any society is a reflection of its demography, politics, economy, culture and spiritual life" (p. 97). Numerous researchers, as part of an ecological approach to understanding children's development, have explored family characteristics and how they interact with the community at large. In order to truly understand children, however, we must select a broader orientation. Development can only be fully understood when it is viewed in the larger cultural context.

Most Popular
Articles in Reference
The importance of understanding organizational culture
Credit card attitudes and behaviors of college students
What factors attract foreign direct investment?
Libraries Need Relationship Marketing - mutual interest marketing concept, ...
How to set performance goals: employee reviews are more than annual critiques
More » A child's culture may be the mainstream or dominant culture, or it may be one of many subcultures that can be found in almost any country. Children's experiences and expectations are determined by their local communities, particular political and economic strata, and specific ethnic or cultural groups.

Therefore, each child needs education services that take into account their diverse cultural, economic and ethnic backgrounds.